Nectar is the sweet liquid secreted by the secretory tissues found in some flowers and absorbed by insects. Many plants pollinate through insects, attracting insects by releasing a sugary liquid called nectar. Nectar is produced by the glands called nectarium. Nectariums can usually be in or out of the flower. When present in the flower, it either forms special structures or any part of the flower releases nectar. Non-flower nectariums are found on organs other than the flower, such as stem and leaf. For example, there are dark spots on the lower surface of the pod leaf atria. If these spots are examined, nectaries of secretory hairs made of several cells are seen. Since there is no pollination in these nectariums, their task is to ensure that water is removed from the plant.
Nectar is secreted by the honey glands around the pollen vesicles of the flowers. Pollen vesicles are usually found in the lower part of the ovary and male organs. In some plants, these vesicles occur in some thickening parts of the petals of the flowers. Rarely, nectar glands are found in other parts of the flower. For example, leaf stalks, leaf and flower bottoms, buds and so on. Such a situation is found in plants such as cherry, cotton, and vetch. But they also have flower nectar vesicles.
The characteristics of the nectar also show a very different sight according to the substances it contains and its source. In terms of quantity and continuity, the formation of the nectar is related to the origin of the plant. In the formation of nectar, the biggest factor is the temperature and humidity of the region. In addition to these, the characteristics of the sun, wind, and soil can also play a positive or negative role. If these conditions are favorable for plant development, nectar formation and separation is more rapid. At high temperatures, drought times reduce the nectar levels of the plants.
Formation of Honey Nectar
The formation of nectar is also subject to the sun. Because photosynthesis normally occurs through the sun, more nutrients come into the body through the leaves of the vegetable. The more the sunny days of the season, the more honey can be expected to be collected. However, the formation and separation of nectar in the flowers where the nectar vesicles are located outside (under the drying effect of the sunshades) are exactly the opposite. In these flowers, nectar is more abundant in foggy, dark weather than in sunny and windy weather. Usually, temperatures of up to 25-30 ° C are considered to be most favorable.
On the other hand, the formation and separation of nectar are influenced by the climate, especially the temperature differences between day and night. At night they should be a little warm and calm. The moisture of the air, the rains falling by following the open and hot weather, help the formation of nectar. However, continuous and rapid rains prolong the growth of the plant and the flowers cause less development. Furthermore, rains can wash the nectar of open nectar marsupial flowers. It has been seen that continuous heat, droughts, and winds blowing from the northeast and southeast also play a negative role in the formation of nectar.
Humid and hot seasons are most suitable within a certain proportion to collect honey in general. It is known that the reasons that reduce the formation and separation of nectar are overheating, non-sufficient sunlight, dry weather, winds, continuous growth of rain and drought. The amount of nectar also depends on the location of the various flowers in the plant. It has been proved that the later flowering hill flowers have less nectar than the lower ones. We can explain why less honey is collected in the second half of the summer. So the reason for this should be sought only in the reduction of the number of flowers found in the lower parts of the plant.
Honey Nectar Producing Plants According to Seasons
Honey Nectar Producing Plants in Late Autumn and Winter
- Bride’s Veil (Clematis Spp)
It is very important for the beekeepers as it blooms in the period when there are very few flowers. The places where the bride’s veil is abundant are the ideal places for wintering the bees. Spreading Area: 100m – 200m high coastal and inland coastal areas. Flowering Period: from December to February. Honey yield: 2–3 groups, pollen yield is high.
- Wild Strawberry (Arbutus)
Spreading area: 100–1200 m above sea level, close to the coast. Flowering period: December. Honey yield: 2–3 groups. Pollen yield: high
- Dandelion (Taraxacum Afficinale)
It blooms in the meadows in winter and early spring. It has quite a wide area. There are 4 groups of honey potential.
- Almond (Amyodulus Communis)
Spreading area: Very wide. The flowering period starts on 15 January in coastal regions and continues throughout February. Flowers in high elevations in March. Honey potential: 1-2 groups. However, it gives plenty of pollen and is preferred by honey bees because it blooms a lot.
Honey Nectar Producing Plants in Spring
- Laurel (Laurus nobilis)
Flowering period: 15 March – 15 April. Propagation area Humid coastal areas between 300–1000 m. Honey potential: 3-4 groups Male and female trees bloom separately. Both have a nectar gland. However, pollen yield is found in the male laurel tree. Female laurels have more nectar glands.
- Maple Tree (Acer Spp)
It is in tree form. It is found scattered in forest areas. Available in humid environments at heights of 0-1500 meters. Flowering Period: 1-15 April – Honey Potential: 3.4. group
- Willow (Salix)
It grows between 0-2000 meters height where water is abundant. Honey Potential: Group 4. Flowering Period: 1-15 April in the coastal areas, 15 April-15 May at heights.
It is in tree form. It blooms a lot. It is the plant of coastal regions. Flowering Period: March 25 – April 15. Spreading Area: 0 – 500 meters in coastal areas. Honey Potential: 4.5. group. Pollen Potential: High.
- Pear (Pyrus communis)
It is a fruit tree. Usually grown in the form of closure garden. Wild in nature (wild pear) grows spontaneously. Spreading Area: grows in most part of the world. Flowering Period: 1-30 April in the coastal areas, later in higher sections. Honey Potential: Group 2.
- Apple (Malus Domestica)
It is especially the plant of high plains. It is a fruit tree grown in wetlands. Flowering period: Varies according to height. It starts near the shore on March 15th and starts to bloom on April 15th. Flowering lasts about 20 days.
- Wild Rose (Rosa spp)
Grows in most places up to 0 – 2000 m height. Grows almost everywhere in woodland. Flowering Period: From April 15, the flowering begins in areas close to the coast. In the highlands lasts until mid-August. It has a flowering period of about 45 days.
- Salvia officinalis
Flowering Period: Starts on April 15 on the coast, in the plateau lasts until mid-summer. Remains flowering for about 20-25 days. The honey potential is the 6th group. It is a honey plant preferred by beekeepers due to its high honey potential and aromatic nectar. Its oil is collected by the perfumers. These oils are used in sherbet making. One drop is enough for 20 liters.
- Peach (Prunus persica)
Spreading area: It grows as a garden fruit everywhere up to 0-2000m height. Flowering period: 1–15 April. Flowering at highs lasts until the beginning of May. Honey potential: 2nd group.
- Mustard (Synapsis alba)
Spreading area: Intense especially in coastal areas. Flowering period: starts in early spring. The most intense flowering period is between 1 and 30 April. Remains flowering for about 1 month. Honey potential: 3rd group.
- Poppy (Papaversomniferum)
Flowering period: Poppy blooms from 10 to 30 May. In higher areas flowering lasts until June 20. Honey potential: 2.3 groups. Pollen yield is high. When the pollen is consumed, it makes you sleep.
- Linden (Tilia Spp)
Spreading area: Grows in humid places at heights of 0 – 800m. Honey potential: 6th group. Honey mass and aroma is very high. Freezing time is long. It is one of the best honey flowers.
- Papaver rhoeas
The flowering period starts on the 15th of April and lasts until mid-July. Honey potential: 2nd group. Pollen yield is high. However, it causes headaches in people who consume their pollen.
Honey Nectar Producing Plants in Summer
- Thistles (Onopordum Bracteatum)
The flowering period is 1-20 June in coastal areas and 1-20 July in high altitudes. Honey potential: 6th group. It is preferred primarily by bees in their region. It is possible to see 6-10 honey bees on a floral receptacle at the same time. Honey does not freeze for a long time. Aromatic.
- Blackberries (Rubus fruticosus L)
Spreading area: Grows in humid environments. Flowering period: Starts on April 15 in the coastal areas, the actual flowering lasts throughout the summer. Flowering continues for a very long time. While there are even ripe fruits, re-bloom lasts. Flowering ends in autumn. Honey potential: 3rd group.
- Sesame (Sesamum Indicum L.)
Spreading area: It is planted as an industrial plant in coastal and medium-altitude areas. The flowering period is between 1-30 July. Nectar yield increases in sesame watered during the flowering period. Nectar yield of sesame seeds grown in rural bottom areas is low. Honey potential: 3rd and 4th groups.
- Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum)
Spreading area: It is an industrial plant grown on coastal plains. It is also grown in places with micro air conditioning. Flowering period: 1-30 July. Honey Potential: 2-3 groups. Honey quality is low. Pollen yield is high. However, in cotton, bees rapidly-produce brood and process honeycomb. Cotton honey is one of the honeys that freezes very quickly.
- Sunflower (Helianthus Annus)
Honey Potential: 2-3 groups. Honey quality is low. However, plenty of product is taken because it has too many flowers. Honey freezes very quickly. In addition, if the bees are kept in the sunflower for a long time, the bee families weaken. Sticky substances secreted by flowers damage honey bees.
- Corn (Zea Mays)
It is grown as an industrial and forage crop. Some varieties are also edible. It is more efficient in irrigable places. Flowering period: 15 June-15 July. Honey potential: 3 – 4 groups. The aroma of honey is quite good. But it freezes quickly. Pollen capacity is quite good. During this period, bees work well on making honeycombs.
- Chestnut (Castanea Sativa)
Spreading area: The abundant precipitation area is 1000 – 1800 m above sea level. It grows in wetlands on the mountains near the coast. They’re big trees. Flowering period: 10–25 June. Honey Potential: 2 – 3 groups. Honey is slightly pitiful and dark in color. Pollen yield is normal. If it rains after flowering, honey yield decreases. Honey yield is high in hot and humid weather.
Honey Nectar Producing Plants in Autumn
Honey bees make pine honey by making use of the pine sap coming out of digestive residues and sucking points of pine cotton in pine or scotch pine. It is also found in pistachio pine and larch. But the honey bee does not benefit from these pines. Spreading area: Red pine, which is contaminated with pine cotton is generally located in the Aegean and Mediterranean regions and close to the coast. It gives the best yield in humid and hot places. In the cold places where the snow falls too much in winter, pine cotton cannot survive and die. Thus, the secretion yield ends. Secretion period: secretion begins on July 20, in slightly high and humid environments. It continues until the cold months of winter. But the real fertile period is between September-October. Secretion potential varies according to the insect concentration, temperature, humidity, precipitation, and the moisture condition of the soil. Yield is high on humid hot days. Yield decreases on windy days. There will be no secretion yield for at least 3 days after rain. Sometimes it can take 15-30 days. If there are not enough bees in the region, the secretion freezes or flows to the ground, after which the honey bee does not benefit sufficiently and the yield decreases. In each season, the secretion yield stops when the insects swap places 2-3 times, then start again.
- Carob (Ceratonia Siliqua)
Spreading area: Mediterranean and Aegean coasts. Flowering period: 15 September – 15 October. It blooms a lot and encourages bees to make offspring. Pollen potential is good. Honey potential: Group 4. From time to time it becomes the 5th group. Honey is aromatic. It freezes fast.
Spreading area: Slopes close to the coastal environments. Flowering period: 20 September to 10 November. It is more fertile in rainy autumn. It is not very productive in rainless years. Honey Potential: Group 3 – 4. Honey gives plenty of pollen. Honey has a unique acrid taste and a pleasant smell.